Physical Chemistry

Physical chemistry, Branch of chemistry concerned with interactions and transformations of materials. Unlike other branches, it deals with the principles of physics underlying all chemical interactions (e.g., gas laws), seeking to measure, correlate, and explain the quantitative aspects of reactions. Quantum mechanics has clarified much for physical chemistry by modeling the smallest particles ordinarily dealt with in the field, atoms and molecules, enabling theoretical chemists to use computers and sophisticated mathematical techniques to understand the chemical nature of matter. Chemical thermodynamics deals with the relationship between heat and other forms of chemical energy. 

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1. Solid State Chemistry

Solid-state chemistry, also sometimes referred as materials chemistry, is the study of the synthesis, structure, and properties of solid phase materials, particularly, but not necessarily exclusively of, non-molecular solids. It therefore has a strong overlap with solid-state physicsmineralogycrystallographyceramics,  metallurgy,  thermodynamicsmaterials science and electronics with a focus on the synthesis of novel materials and their characterisation. Solids can be classified as crystalline or amorphous on basis of the nature of order present in the arrangement of their constituent particles.

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2. Solutions

In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. The mixing process of a solution happens at a scale where the effects of chemical polarity are involved, resulting in interactions that are specific to solvation. The solution usually has the state of the solvent when the solvent is the larger fraction of the mixture, as is commonly the case. One important parameter of a solution is the concentration, which is a measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solution or solvent. The term "aqueous solution" is used when one of the solvents is water.

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3. Electrochemistry 

Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa. These reactions involve electric charges moving between electrodes and an electrolyte (or ionic species in a solution). Thus electrochemistry deals with the interaction between electrical energy and chemical change.

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4. Chemical Kinetics

Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa. These reactions involve electric charges moving between electrodes and an electrolyte (or ionic species in a solution). Thus electrochemistry deals with the interaction between electrical energy and chemical change.

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5. Surface Chemistry

It is the study of the chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two surfaces which can be solid-liquid, solid-gas, solid-vacuum, liquid-gas, etc. Some applications of surface chemistry are known as surface engineering. There are various phenomena taking place on the surface of a substance and out of them some are:

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6. Colloids 

In chemistry, a colloid is a phase separated mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble or soluble particles is suspended throughout another substance. Sometimes the dispersed substance alone is called the colloid;[1] the term colloidal suspension refers unambiguously to the overall mixture (although a narrower sense of the word suspension is distinguished from colloids by larger particle size). Unlike a solution, whose solute and solvent constitute only one phase, a colloid has a dispersed phase (the suspended particles) and a continuous phase (the medium of suspension) that arise by phase separation. Typically, colloids do not completely settle or take a long time to settle completely into two separated layers.

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